Temporal patterns in disparity and diversity of the Jurassic ammonoids of southern Germany
Abstract. A morphometric analysis of the characteristic whorl cross-sections of 1,200 Jurassic ammonoid species from southern Germany enabled us to characterise their morphospace. The successive Jurassic ammonoid faunas of southern Germany show characteristic patterns in morphospace occupation. While Early and Middle Jurassic ammonoids occupy limited areas of the morphospace range, the Late Jurassic ammonoids cover the entire spectrum. The ammonoids are characterised by an overall increase of both taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity in the course of the Jurassic. Strong fluctuations occur until the middle Late Jurassic, followed by a diversity decrease in the early Kimmeridgian and a disparity reduction in the early Tithonian. While diversity and disparity show similar progression during most of the Early Jurassic, they diverge subsequently and show only poor correlation until the end of the Jurassic. Particularly in the Middle Jurassic diversity and sea level changes correlate strongly. Neither temporal patterns in diversity nor disparity support the hypothesis of a mass extinction event in the early Toarcian. Significant changes in diversity and disparity in the early Callovian support a putative migration event of Boreal ammonoids into the Tethyan realm.