Articles | Volume 21, issue 1
Foss. Rec., 21, 33–45, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Special issue: Secondary adaptation of tetrapods to life in water...
Research article 16 Jan 2018
Research article | 16 Jan 2018
Relationships of cochlear coiling shape and hearing frequencies in cetaceans, and the occurrence of infrasonic hearing in Miocene Mysticeti
Indira S. Ritsche et al.
No articles found.
Christian Neumann and Oliver Hampe
Foss. Rec., 21, 55–66,Short summary
We describe a biting trace on the oral surface of a large Maastrichtian holasteroid echinoid Echinocorys ovata from Hemmoor (northern Germany) which exhibits four circular punctures, arranged in a semi-circular arc. The punctures were not lethal to the sea urchin as is indicated by progressed skeletal regeneration and closure of the fractures. The shape and arrangement of the biting trace are analyzed suggesting that it was produced most likely by a globidensine mosasauroid.
Related subject area
Taxonomy and biodiversityIngensalinae subfam. nov. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoroidea: Inoderbidae), a new planthopper subfamily from mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber from MyanmarThe first xiphydriid wood wasp in Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae) and a potential association with CycadalesAlbian to Turonian agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages of the Lower Saxony Cretaceous sub-basins – implications for sequence stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental interpretationPast ecosystems drive the evolution of the early diverged Symphyta (Hymenoptera: Xyelidae) since the earliest EoceneOntogenetic development of the European basal aquatic turtle Pleurosternon bullockii (Paracryptodira, Pleurosternidae)Cretopachyderes gen. nov., a new remarkable click beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Agrypninae) from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amberThe genus Allodia (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Miocene Ethiopian amberThe southernmost occurrence of Ichthyosaurus from the Sinemurian of PortugalA new odontocete (Inioidea, Odontoceti) from the late Neogene of North Carolina, USAThe first Fulgoridae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from the Eocene of the central Qinghai–Tibetan PlateauNew shell information and new generic attributions for the Egyptian podocnemidid turtles “Podocnemis” fajumensis (Oligocene) and “Podocnemis” aegyptiaca (Miocene)At the crossroads: early Miocene marine fishes of the proto-Mediterranean SeaThe first extinct species of Acritus LeConte, 1853 (Histeridae: Abraeinae) from Eocene Baltic amber: a microscopic beetle inclusion studied with X-ray micro-computed tomographyA new enigmatic lineage of Dascillidae (Coleoptera: Elateriformia) from Eocene Baltic amber described using X-ray microtomography, with notes on Karumiinae morphology and classificationFirst record of the subfamily Sagrinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from the Eocene of North AmericaThe polycentropodid genus Cernotina (Insecta, Trichoptera) in Miocene Dominican amberTwo new species of the family Rhynchitidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber, with key to species and assumed trophic relationshipsExtensive vertebrate tracksite from the Upper Red Formation (middle–late Miocene), west Zanjan, northwestern IranA new delphinid from the lower Pliocene of the North Sea and the early radiations of true dolphinsA new Eocene Bacanius species (Histeridae: Dendrophilinae) from Baltic amberSelenogonus narinoensis Stirton, 1947 (Tayassuidae, Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia): taxonomic status and paleobiogeographic implicationsOsteology of the Permian temnospondyl amphibian Glanochthon lellbachae and its relationshipsFirst occurrence of brachyopid temnospondyls in Southeast Asia and review of the Mesozoic amphibians from ThailandThe first described turtle beetles from Eocene Baltic amber, with notes on fossil Chelonariidae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea)A new late Miocene bovid (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from Çorakyerler (Turkey)A new species of the genus Glaesotropis Gratshev and Zherikhin, 1995 (Coleoptera, Anthribidae) from Rovno amberNew genus of the tribe Ceutorhynchini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from the late Oligocene of Enspel, southwestern Germany, with a remark on the role of weevils in the ancient food webA new wing skeleton of Forfexopterus (Pterosauria: Ctenochasmatidae) from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota reveals a developmental variationAn ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Cenomanian Dunvegan Formation of northeastern British Columbia, CanadaThe first record of Brentidae (Coleoptera) in Eocene Rovno amber with description of a new fossil species of Toxorhynchus Scudder, 1893An unfamiliar physeteroid periotic (Cetacea: Odontoceti) from the German middle–late Miocene North Sea basin at Groß PampauA revision of Ophidiaster davidsoni de Loriol and Pellat 1874 from the Tithonian of Boulogne (France) and its transfer from the Valvatacea to the new forcipulatacean genus Psammaster gen. nov.Two new species of Mennerotodus Zhelezko, 1994 (Chondrichthyes: Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), from the Paleogene of the southeastern United StatesDescription of the male of fossil Calomicrus eocenicus Bukejs et Bezděk (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) from Eocene Baltic amber using X-ray microtomographyAn alternative interpretation of Peltochelys duchastelii as a paracryptodireA new fossil species of Attagenus Latreille (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Rovno and Baltic ambers, with a brief review of known fossil beetles from the Rovno amber LagerstätteA new Eocene genus of the subtribe Tylodina (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and notes concerning local differences of Baltic amber in the Kaliningrad RegionA new, rare and small “lobeattid” species (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera) found at Xiaheyan (Pennsylvanian; Ningxia, China)On the first Silis Charpentier, 1825 from Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Cantharidae)The second fossil species of Cathartosilvanus (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea: Silvanidae) from Eocene Baltic amberMicroanatomy and growth of the mesosaurs Stereosternum tumidum and Brazilosaurus sanpauloensis (Reptilia, Parareptilia)The new encrusting microproblematicum Circumpodium enigmaticum and its attachment trace Circumpodichnus serialis from the Middle Jurassic of Normandy (France)Dignoptinus, a new genus for fossil Dignomus regiomontanus Alekseev from Eocene Baltic amber, and new status for Bruchoptinus Reitter and Pseudoptinus Reitter (Coleoptera: Ptinidae)An insect wing discovered in the Early Permian Taiyuan Formation (Shanxi Province, China)Presence of the Jehol Biota turtle Ordosemys liaoxiensis in the Early Cretaceous Hengtongshan Formation of southern Jilin Province, ChinaA new bizarre dysoneurid species (Insecta, Trichoptera) in Burmese amberGroehnius, a new genus of Eugnomini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Eocene Baltic amberNotes on rhopalosomatid wasps of Dominican and Mexican amber (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) with a description of the first fossil species of Rhopalosoma Cresson, 1865First record of the tribe Naupactini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Rovno amberOn a remarkable new species of Tharsis, a Late Jurassic teleostean fish from southern Germany: its morphology and phylogenetic relationships
Cihang Luo, Zhishun Song, Xiaojing Liu, Tian Jiang, Edmund A. Jarzembowski, and Jacek Szwedo
Foss. Rec., 24, 455–465,Short summary
Ingensala xiai gen. et sp. nov. is described based on a specimen from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The new genus can be definitely attributed to Inoderbidae mainly based on its head structure, pronotum, and mesonotum without median and lateral carinae, but it differs from the type genus to a large extent and two new subfamilies are established for these two genera respectively. The similarities between Ingensala, Qiyangiricaniidae, Weiwoboidae, and Tropiduchidae are discussed.
Jia Gao, Michael S. Engel, Friðgeir Grímsson, Lei Gu, Dong Ren, and Tai-Ping Gao
Foss. Rec., 24, 445–453,Short summary
We described the first xiphydriid wood wasp fossil, which extends the occurrence of Xiphydriidae into the mid-Cretaceous and adds to the known diversity of features in the family. In addition, the simplification of the wing venation and hypothesized host-plant affiliations of early xiphydriids are discussed based on the pollen of Cycadales preserved with the wasp.
Richard M. Besen, Ulrich Struck, and Ekbert Seibertz
Foss. Rec., 24, 395–441,Short summary
The agglutinated foraminiferal fauna in carbonate rocks from the mid-Cretaceous of Lower Saxony is documented and applied to reconstruct former paleoenvironmental conditions. Especially, sea level fluctuations are possible to reconstruct from changes in the foraminiferal record. Differences of the foraminiferal assemblages in different locations, closer or further away from the former coast, are discussed. Described bio-events of the time interval are linked to foraminiferal bio-events.
Corentin Jouault, Arvid Aase, and André Nel
Foss. Rec., 24, 379–393,Short summary
Here we describe two new genera of fossil sawfly belonging to the Xyelidae. The fossil record of the family during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic is analyzed, supporting the hypothesis that the Eocene biomes shape the current distribution of the Xyelidae. These discoveries were made possible thanks to the study of old specimens housed in institutional collections or donated by an American citizen.
Andrea Guerrero and Adán Pérez-García
Foss. Rec., 24, 357–377,Short summary
Several British specimens corresponding to shells of small pleurosternid turtles (Lower Cretaceous) are analysed in detail here. Due to the scarce knowledge available to date about these specimens, their taxonomic status was doubtful. A detailed study through qualitative and quantitative approaches is performed. The results provide evidence of a significant range of shape variability because of the ontogeny. Thus, their attribution to juvenile individuals of Pleurosternon bullockii is justified.
Robin Kundrata, Alexander S. Prosvirov, Roger Long, and Gabriela Packova
Foss. Rec., 24, 347–355,Short summary
Although the Mesozoic Era played an important role in the evolution and diversification of Elateridae, the Cretaceous click-beetle fauna remains very poorly known. Here we describe Cretopachyderes burmitinus gen. et sp. nov. based on a single specimen from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. This species is remarkable for its extremely long posterior angles of pronotum, which is a unique character among fossil Elateridae.
Valentine Bouju, Simon Rosse-Guillevic, Marion Griffon, Błażej Bojarski, Jacek Szwedo, and Vincent Perrichot
Foss. Rec., 24, 339–346,Short summary
An extinct species of fly is described from 16–23-million-year-old amber of Ethiopia. It is the first fossil of the fly family Mycetophilidae discovered from Africa. This discovery informs the evolutionary history of Afrotropical fungus gnats.
João Sousa and Octávio Mateus
Foss. Rec., 24, 287–294,Short summary
In this work we sought to use modern research techniques to revisit a ichthyosaur specimen from Portugal, the most complete fin of our fossil record, and verify the validity of the specimen's historical identification. Through the use of phylogenetic analysis and anatomical comparisons with other specimens, we have assigned a new classification to the specimen and concluded it is the southernmost exemplar of the group.
Stephen J. Godfrey, Carolina S. Gutstein, and Donald J. Morgan III
Foss. Rec., 24, 275–285,Short summary
A new species of dolphin is named on the basis of a partial skull. It was found on a riverbed in North Carolina, USA. During the Miocene it lived in a marine environment. It is most closely related to the Amazon river dolphin. During the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, relatives of the freshwater river dolphins were living in marine environments. More recently, these marine species became extinct, survived only by those species that successfully invaded South American riverine systems.
Xiao-Ting Xu, Wei-Yu-Dong Deng, Zhe-Kun Zhou, Torsten Wappler, and Tao Su
Foss. Rec., 24, 263–274,Short summary
The Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP) played a crucial role in shaping the biodiversity in Asia during the Cenozoic, but the evolutionary history of biodiversity in this large region remains unclear. Here, we report a new fossil record of Fulgoridae from the middle Eocene Lunpola Basin, central QTP, which represents the earliest Fulgoridae fossil record in Asia and suggests a warm climate with relatively low elevation during the middle Eocene in central QTP.
Foss. Rec., 24, 247–262,Short summary
The early Oligocene
Podocnemisfajumensis and the early Miocene
Podocnemisaegyptiaca are two podocnemidid pleurodiran turtles from northern Egypt, defined more than a century ago. Both species are confirmed as valid. They are attributed to two new genera, corresponding to the oldest defined for the African record of Erymnochelyini. Thus, the new combinations Shetwemys fajumensis and Apeshemys aegyptiaca are proposed.
Konstantina Agiadi, Efterpi Koskeridou, and Danae Thivaiou
Foss. Rec., 24, 233–246,Short summary
Climate and connection between marine basins have formed the modern Mediterranean fish fauna. Here, we present new data for the early stages of the fish fauna, 20–23 million years ago, when the Mediterranean Sea was starting to take its actual shape, and we show its relationship to the fish faunas of the surrounding seas. Two new fish species are described: Ariosoma mesohellenica and Gnathophis elongatus.
Vitalii I. Alekseev and Andris Bukejs
Foss. Rec., 24, 223–231,Short summary
A new micro-histerid species is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber. As the first extinct member of the subfamily Abraeinae (Histeridae) and the smallest known fossil histerid specimen, this material was examined using a combination of light microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). Internal features of the abdomen are well preserved, allowing us to study sclerotized parts of the aedeagus and illustrate these structures in detail.
Robin Kundrata, Matthew L. Gimmel, Gabriela Packova, Andris Bukejs, and Stephan M. Blank
Foss. Rec., 24, 141–149,Short summary
Dascillidae are a species-poor beetle group with a scarce fossil record. Here, we used light microscopy and X-ray microtomography to describe Baltodascillus serraticornis gen. et sp. nov. based on a well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber. We tentatively place this species in the subfamily Karumiinae. This is the first representative of the Dascillidae formally described from Baltic amber and the first described fossil member of the subfamily Karumiinae.
Andrei A. Legalov
Foss. Rec., 24, 135–139,Short summary
Palaeatalasis monrosi gen. at sp. nov. belonging to the subfamily Sagrinae (Chrysomelidae) is described from the Green River Formation (age 53.5–48.5 Ma). The new genus is similar to Atalasis Lacordaire, 1845 from Argentina. It also differs from the Eocene Eosagra Haupt, 1950 and the Paleocene Gallopsis Legalov, Kirejtshuk et Nel, 2019. It is the first record of the Sagrinae from North America and the fourth known species of the family Chrysomelidae from the Green River.
Wilfried Wichard and Christian Neumann
Foss. Rec., 24, 129–133,Short summary
A new polycentropodid caddisfly species is described from Miocene Dominican amber. The family Polycentropodidae is therefore represented in the Dominican amber with two species belonging to the genus Cernotina: C. pulchra Wichard, 2007, and C. fossilinova sp. nov. The endemic C. danieli Flint & Sykora, 2004, is the only representative of the genus occurring on Hispaniola today and is similar to the two fossil species.
Andris Bukejs and Andrei A. Legalov
Foss. Rec., 24, 117–127,Short summary
Baltocar sontagae sp. nov. and Pseudomesauletes lobanovi sp. nov. from the family Rhynchitidae are described from Eocene Baltic amber. It is the first record of Pseudomesauletes from Baltic amber. Keys to species of the genus Baltocar and to the Eocene species of the genus Pseudomesauletes are given. Assumed trophic relationships of the genus Baltocar with Cupressaceae and Pseudomesauletes lobanovi sp. nov. with Rosaceae are discussed.
Nasrollah Abbassi, Masoumeh Khoshyar, Spencer G. Lucas, and Farid Esmaeili
Foss. Rec., 24, 101–116,Short summary
The Chehrabad area, NW Iran, is known as the historical site of Saltmen mine dated to the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras. We, however, discovered animal footprints in NW Chehrabad (ca. 3 km NW of the Saltmen mine) on a very large slab. These footprints belong to the Miocene age and include canid, felid and bird tracks as old as 10.7 Ma. The canid footprint record establishes the late Miocene presence of canids on the Iranian Plateau as part of the Eurasia-wide “Eucyon event”.
Alice Belluzzo and Olivier Lambert
Foss. Rec., 24, 77–92,Short summary
Whereas true dolphins (Delphinidae) are the most diversified family of cetaceans today, their evolutionary history remains poorly known due to a relatively patchy fossil record. Based on a fossil skull discovered in early Pliocene (5 to 4.4 million years ago) marine sediments from Antwerp (Belgium), we describe here a new genus and species of small dolphin, Pliodelphis doelensis. This is the first delphinid species to be recorded from the early Pliocene in the North Sea.
Vitalii I. Alekseev and Andris Bukejs
Foss. Rec., 24, 93–99,Short summary
Clown beetles (Histeridae) are insufficiently studied in fossil resins. The aim of the present research is to describe a new species of Bacaniini from Eocene Baltic amber. The specimen is studied using X-ray micro-computed tomography, imaged and compared with fossil and extant related beetles. A mixed sporophagous–predaceous diet in rotten wood of fallen and standing trees was assumed to be the ecological niche for the fossil species.
Germán M. Gasparini, Oscar F. Moreno-Mancilla, and José L. Cómbita
Foss. Rec., 24, 65–75,
Rainer R. Schoch
Foss. Rec., 24, 49–64,Short summary
The 296 million year old rocks of Odernheim (Germany) preserve numerous fossils of fishes and amphibians (temnospondyls) of Permian age. This site is exceptional for yielding two large temnospondyl predators: the 2 m long Sclerocephalus nobilis and 1.5 m long Glanochthon lellbachae. A revision of G. lellbachae reveals that it forms the most ancient relative of the genus Glanochthon, a gracile fish eater, and that the origin of this group can be traced back to the genus Sclerocephalus.
Thanit Nonsrirach, Sita Manitkoon, and Komsorn Lauprasert
Foss. Rec., 24, 33–47,Short summary
Although thousands of vertebrate remains have been found in Thailand, few amphibian remains have been reported. Here, we present an overview on the Thai amphibian paleo-diversity. The Thai amphibian fossils show the most diverse Mesozoic amphibian record in Southeast Asia, and this agrees with the hypothesis of a large physical connection between the Indochina block and Laurussia during the Mesozoic era.
Vitalii I. Alekseev, Jerit Mitchell, Ryan C. McKellar, Mauricio Barbi, Hans C. E. Larsson, and Andris Bukejs
Foss. Rec., 24, 19–32,Short summary
Two new fossil species of turtle beetles have been identified from inclusions in Baltic amber (approx. 41–38 million years old). These beetles are the first described representatives of the family from this amber type and the first known turtle beetles from Europe. The paper also contains a discussion about possible association of the fossil turtle beetles with orchids in the Eocene
amberiferous forestand remarks concerning fossil beetles of the group.
Dimitris S. Kostopoulos, Ayla Sevim Erol, Alper Yener Yavuz, and Serdar Mayda
Foss. Rec., 24, 9–18,Short summary
Biodiversity at the primate-bearing Çorakyerler site, Turkey, dating to the upper Miocene, is high, including up to 10 distinct bovid taxa. In this work, we describe five new bovid crania of a new bovid genus and species, Gangraia anatolica. The new taxon is characterized by long, keelless, and transversally ridged, homonymously twisted horn cores, and it shows a particular mixture of caprine and alcelaphine cranial features that are similar to the Alcelaphini–Caprini–Hippotragini clade.
Andrei A. Legalov, Vitaliy Y. Nazarenko, and Evgeny E. Perkovsky
Foss. Rec., 24, 1–7,Short summary
Glaesotropis rohdendorfi sp. nov. belongs to the subgenus Electranthribus, described from Eocene Rovno amber. The new species is similar to G. zherikhini from Baltic amber. It is the first described beetle from the Olevsk amber locality, the sixth amber species reported from the Zhytomyr region, the first record of the subgenus Electranthribus, and the third Anthribidae from Rovno amber. An aggregation of glaesacarid mites as a syninclusion with the fungus weevil is reported for the first time.
Andrei A. Legalov and Markus J. Poschmann
Foss. Rec., 23, 197–204,Short summary
The new weevil Igneonasus rudolphi gen. et sp. nov. of the tribe Ceutorhynchini is described from the late Oligocene of Fossillagerstätte Enspel, Germany. The new genus is similar to the Recent genus Stenocarus and the largest representative of the supertribe Ceutorhynchitae. It is the first fossil Curculionidae species described from the paleolake Enspel. In this ancient ecosystem, weevils were at least sometimes an important food resource for the cyprinid fish Palaeorutilus enspelensis.
Chang-Fu Zhou, Jiahao Wang, and Ziheng Zhu
Foss. Rec., 23, 191–196,Short summary
Filter-feeding ctenochasmatid pterosaurs flourished in the Jehol Biota. Here, a new wing skeleton of the ctenochasmatid Forfexopterus is described from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation in Jianchang, western Liaoning, China. Interestingly, it exhibits a skeletal maturity with co-ossified elements, but it is only about 75 % the size of the immature holotype, revealing a developmental variation of Forfexopterus.
Victoria M. Arbour, Derek Larson, Matthew Vavrek, Lisa Buckley, and David Evans
Foss. Rec., 23, 179–189,Short summary
We describe the first dinosaur skeletal fossils from the Dunvegan Formation of British Columbia, collected near the Pine River in 1930. These are some of the oldest dinosaur body fossils from British Columbia and western Canada. We identify these bones as partial dorsal vertebrae and ribs from an ankylosaur; ankylosaur footprints are some of the most common fossils in this formation and in this region.
Andris Bukejs and Andrei A. Legalov
Foss. Rec., 23, 169–177,
Irene Montañez-Rivera and Oliver Hampe
Foss. Rec., 23, 151–168,Short summary
The locality of Groß Pampau in northern Germany is famous for its rich marine mammal assemblage of the Miocene age. A newly discovered ear bone of a fossil sperm whale is described here with morphological characters so far unknown from other sperm whales. It remains unclear at this point if it could belong to a sperm whale whose fragments were discovered in the same locality or to another, already-described taxon, of which the ear bones are still unknown.
Marine Fau, Loïc Villier, Timothy A. M. Ewin, and Andrew S. Gale
Foss. Rec., 23, 141–149,Short summary
Forcipulatacea is one of the major clades of extant sea stars with 400 extant species described, but with fewer than 25 fossil species known. Thus, the identification of any new fossil representatives is significant. We reappraise Ophidiaster davidsoni from the Tithonian of Boulogne, France, which was assigned to another major extant group, and reassign it within a new forcipulatacean genus Psammaster gen. nov. A phylogenetic analysis does not place it within any existing forcipulatacean family.
David J. Cicimurri, Jun A. Ebersole, and George Martin
Foss. Rec., 23, 117–140,Short summary
Mennerotodus is a genus of fossil shark that lived during the Paleogene Period, between 65 and 38 million years ago, and was previously known only from Asia and Europe. In this study, new species of Mennerotodus have been identified in the USA from Alabama (Mennerotodus mackayi) and South Carolina (Mennerotodus parmleyi). Mennerotodus mackayi is the oldest of the species, suggesting the genus originated in the Gulf Coastal Plain of the USA during the Paleocene Epoch (~ 65 million years ago).
Andris Bukejs, Jan Bezděk, Vitalii I. Alekseev, Kristaps Kairišs, and Ryan C. McKellar
Foss. Rec., 23, 105–115,Short summary
A male of the extinct leaf-beetle species Calomicrus eocenicus embedded in Baltic amber is found and compared with an earlier known female. The beetle genitalia are illustrated in detail using X-ray microtomography. The male is smaller than female and has a modified last abdominal segment. The extinct species (about 40 million years old) possesses typical sexual characters which are similar to the characters of extant beetles within the group.
Walter G. Joyce and Yann Rollot
Foss. Rec., 23, 83–93,Short summary
Peltochelys duchastelii is an enigmatic fossil turtle from the Early Cretaceous of Bernissart, Belgium. Here we provide an alternative interpretation of the morphology of this turtle, which suggests for the first time relationships with paracryptodires, a now extinct group of turtles known from coeval deposits throughout western Europe and North America.
Andris Bukejs, Jiří Háva, and Vitalii I. Alekseev
Foss. Rec., 23, 95–104,Short summary
New fossil species of skin beetles (Dermestidae) from two bioinclusions in Eocene ambers (Baltic and Rovno) are described and compared with extinct and extant congeners. The affinity of the Rovno and Baltic amber varieties is briefly reviewed. The checklist of the described beetles (57 species) from Rovno amber is compiled and presented for the first time.
Andris Bukejs, Vitalii I. Alekseev, and Andrei A. Legalov
Foss. Rec., 23, 75–81,Short summary
We describe a new species and genus of weevils, Baltacalles triumurbium, from the Eocene amber of the Sambia Peninsula (Kaliningrad Region, Russia). The new fossil represents the first Eocene representative of the group. In addition to the taxonomic work, the locally distinct deposits of Baltic amber in the Kaliningrad Region are listed, discussed, photographed and mapped. The importance of the possible exact labeling of the amber material is underlined.
Lu Chen, Dong Ren, and Olivier Béthoux
Foss. Rec., 23, 71–74,
Francesco Parisi and Fabrizio Fanti
Foss. Rec., 22, 119–123,Short summary
Only in recent years have new genera and species of the subfamily Silinae Mulsant, 1862 been described as inclusions in amber. However, no representative of the genus Silis Charpentier, 1825 had been described from Baltic amber, even if few specimens were already known at the generic level. Silis lombardii sp. nov. is entirely dark brown and shows (as usual for the genus) the two characteristic lobes in the sides of pronotum, elongated elytra, and a basal small tooth only on the anterior claws.
Vitalii I. Alekseev, Andris Bukejs, and Ryan C. McKellar
Foss. Rec., 22, 111–118,Short summary
In this paper we describe a new fossil species of the silvanid flat bark beetle from Baltic amber. The new beetle species from European Eocene belongs to the genus living only in the New World now. Possible, the studied specimen is an adult beetle entrapped in resin shortly after moulting.
Nicole Klein, Antoine Verrière, Heitor Sartorelli, Tanja Wintrich, and Jörg Fröbisch
Foss. Rec., 22, 91–110,
Max Wisshak and Liane Hüne
Foss. Rec., 22, 77–90,Short summary
Here, we describe an enigmatic new microfossil that was found encrusting a belemnite from the Middle Jurassic of the Falaises des Vaches Noires in Normandy, France. The organism has produced a conspicuous attachment etching on the belemnite for better adhesion and this trace fossil is new to science as well. Based on morphological criteria and the capacity to bioerode, the new microproblematicum can best be compared to encrusting bryozoans and foraminiferans.
Vitalii I. Alekseev, Andris Bukejs, and Xavier Bellés
Foss. Rec., 22, 65–72,Short summary
The current paper describes a new fossil genus of spider beetles from Baltic amber (Eocene, 34–55 million years old). This fossil resin can be found throughout the Baltic Sea coastal area in northern Europe (Kaliningrad region, Russia; Poland; Denmark; Sweden; Germany; and Lithuania). The examined fossil material is housed in the private collection of Christel and Hans Werner Hoffeins (Hamburg, Germany).
Jin Wang, Olivier Béthoux, Dong Ren, and Yingying Cui
Foss. Rec., 22, 73–76,Short summary
In this paper we focus on an insect wing fragment from the rarely known Taiyuan Formation (Early Permian; China). It is the first discovery of an arthropod as well as being the first insect, but currently we think the combination characters that the new material exhibited make it difficult to assign it to any known insect group. This indicates that more data are needed in the future. Hopefully our current documentation will be useful for the potential fossil discovery in the Taiyuan Formation.
Chang-Fu Zhou, Wen-Hao Wu, and Márton Rabi
Foss. Rec., 22, 57–64,Short summary
The Jehol Biota of northeastern China (western Liaoning and conjoint areas) is renowned for its exquisite preservation of plant, invertebrate and vertebrate fossils. Here, we report three new specimens of the freshwater sinemydid turtle Ordosemys liaoxiensis from Hengtongshan Formation of Meihekou City, Jilin Province, northeastern China. As the first Mesozoic turtle of Jilin Province, this record represents the first tetrapod to indicate the presence of the Jehol Biota in the region.
Wilfried Wichard and Christian Neumann
Foss. Rec., 22, 51–56,Short summary
We describe a bizarre and extinct caddisfly species, Cretapsyche palpinova sp. nov., from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.
Andris Bukejs and Andrei A. Legalov
Foss. Rec., 22, 45–49,Short summary
This paper describes a new genus and species of weevils from Baltic amber (Eocene, 55–34 million years old). This fossil resin can be found throughout the Baltic Sea coastal area in northern Europe (Kaliningrad region, Russia; Poland; Denmark; Sweden; Germany; and Lithuania). The new fossil weevil is more similar to extant American genera, but its host plants cannot be assumed. The new fossil genus is named in honour of Carsten Gröhn (Germany), an enthusiast and specialist in Baltic amber.
Volker Lohrmann, Michael Ohl, Peter Michalik, James P. Pitts, Laurent Jeanneau, and Vincent Perrichot
Foss. Rec., 22, 31–44,Short summary
Here, we report three new fossil rhopalosomatid wasp specimens from Dominican and Mexican amber. Rhopalosoma hispaniola Lohrmann sp. nov. is described and documented from Dominican amber by two separate inclusions – one of each sex. An additional fossil female Rhopalosoma is described and documented from Mexican amber. The new fossils do not only represent the first fossil records of an extant genus of this peculiar family but also the first records of the family in Dominican and Mexican amber.
Andris Bukejs and Andrei A. Legalov
Foss. Rec., 22, 25–30,Short summary
New entimine weevil, Arostropsis perkovskyi Bukejs and Legalov, sp. nov. from the tribe Naupactini of subfamily Entiminae of the family Curculionidae is described from Late Eocene Rovno amber (Ukraine). The new species is similar to Arostropsis groehni Yunakov et Kirejtshuk, 2011 from Baltic amber. Arostropsis perkovskyi is the second species of the genus Arostropsis. It is the first record of the tribe Naupactini from Rovno amber. Composition of weevil subfamilies in Rovno amber is discussed.
Gloria Arratia, Hans-Peter Schultze, and Helmut Tischlinger
Foss. Rec., 22, 1–23,Short summary
The teleosts (e.g., herrings, trouts) comprise the largest group of living fishes today. The aim of the present study is to investigate and describe a new species of the primitive teleost Tharsis from the Late Jurassic. Tharsis is currently known by one species, Tharsis dubious, which is one of the most common fish in the Solnfohen limestone, Bavaria, Germany. A new species, Tharsis elleri, is described and assigned to the family Ascalaboidae within the new order Ascalaboidiformes.
Adams, D. C., Rohlf, F. J., and Slice, D. E.: A field comes of age: geometric morphometrics in the 21st century, Hystrix, 24, 7–14, 2013.
Awbrey, F. T., Thomas, J. A., and Kastelein, R. A.: Low-frequency underwater hearing sensitivity in belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 109, 1717–1722, 1988.
Backus, R. H. and Schevill, W. E.: Physeter clicks, in: Whales, dolphins and porpoises, edited by: Norris, K. S., Univ. California Press, Berkeley, 510–528, 1966.
Beamish, P. and Mitchell, E.: Ultrasonic sounds recorded in the presence of a blue whale Balanoptera musculus, Deep-Sea Res., 18, 803–809, 1971.
Blomqvist, C. and Amundin, M.: High-frequency burst-pulse sounds in agonistic/agressive interactions in Bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in: Echolocation in bats and dolphins, edited by: Thomas, J. A., Moss, C. F., and Vater, M., University Press, Chicago, 425–431, 2004.
Boessenecker, R. W. and Fordyce, R. E.: A new genus and species of eomysticetid (Cetacea: Mysticeti) and a reinterpretation of `Mauicetus' lophocephalus Marples, 1956: Transitional baleen whales from the upper Oligocene of New Zealand, Zool. J. Linnean Soc., 175, 607–660, 2015.
Castellote, M., Mooney, T. A., Quakenbush, L., Hobbs, R., Goertz, C., and Gaglione, E.: Baseline hearing abilities and variability in wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), J. Exp. Biol., 217, 1682–1691, 2014.
Chadwick, R. S., Manoussaki, D., Dimitriadis, E. K., Shoelson, B., Ketten, D. R., Arruda, J., and O'Malley, J. T.: Cochlear coiling and low-frequency hearing, in: Auditory mechanisms: Processes and models, Nuttall, A. L., Ren, T., Gillespie, P., Grosh, K., and de Broer, E., World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 417–424, 2006.
Churchill M., Martínez-Cáceres, M., de Muizon, C., Mnieckowski, J., and Geisler, J. H.: The origin of high-frequency hearing in whales, Current Biol., 26, 2144–2149, 2016.
Cummings, W. C. and Holliday, D. V.: Sounds and source levels from bowhead whales off Pt. Barrow, Alaska, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 82, 814–821, 1987.
Cranford, T. W. and Krysl, P.: Fin whale sound reception mechanisms: Skull vibration enables low-frequency hearing, PLoS ONE, 10, e0116222, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116222, 2015.
Erbe, C.: Hearing abilities of baleen whales, Defense R&D Canada Atlantic Contractor Report, 2002-065, 1–28, 2002.
Ekdale, E. G.: Morphological variation among the inner ears of extinct and extant baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti), J. Morphol., 277, 1599–1615, 2016.
Ekdale, E. G. and Racicot, R. A.: Anatomical evidence for low frequency sensitivity in an archaeocete whale: Comparison of the inner ear of Zygorhiza kochii with that of crown Mysticeti, J. Anat., 226, 22–39, 2015.
Fahlke, J. M. and Hampe, O.: Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution, Naturwiss., 102, 1–16, 2015.
Fahlke, J. M., Gingerich, P. D., Welsh, R. C., and Wood, A. R.: Cranial asymmetry in Eocene archaeocete whales and the evolution of directional hearing in water, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 108, 14545–14548, 2011.
Fleischer, G.: Studien am Skelett des Gehörorgans der Säugetiere, einschließlich des Menschen, Säugetierkundl. Mitt., 21, 131–239, 1973.
Fleischer, G.: Hearing in extinct cetaceans as determined by cochlear structure, J. Paleont., 50, 133–152, 1976a.
Fleischer, G.: Über die Beziehungen zwischen Hörvermögen und Schädelbau bei Walen, Säugetierkundl. Mitt., 24, 48–59, 1976b.
Fleischer, G.: Evolutionary principles of the mammalian middle ear, Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol., 55, 3–70, 1978.
Gedamke, J., Costa, D. P., and Dunstan, A.: Localization and visual verification of a complex minke whale vocalization, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 109, 3038–3047, 2001.
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T., and Ryan, P. D.: PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis, Palaeontol. Electronica, 4, 1–9, 2001.
Hampe, O. and Ritsche, I.: Die Bartenwalfauna (Cetacea: Mysticeti: Balaenomorpha) aus dem Lüneburgium (Serravallium, Mittelmiozän) von Freetz bei Sittensen (Niedersachsen, Deutschland), Z. geol. Wiss., 39, 83–110, 2011.
Heffner, H. E. and Heffner, R. S.: High-frequency hearing, in: Handbook of the senses: Audition, edited by: Dallos, P., Oertel, D., and Hoy, R., Elsevier, New York, 55–60, 2008.
Herzing, D. L.: Acoustics and social behaviour of wild dolphins: Implications for a sound society, in: Hearing by whales and dolphins, edited by: Au, W. W. L., Popper, A. N., and Fay, R. R., Springer, New York, 225–272, 2000.
Johnson, C. S.: Auditory threshold of the bottlenosed porpoise (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu), NOTS Techn. Publ., 4178, U.S. Naval Ordonance Test Station, China Lake, CA, 1966.
Johnson, C. S., McManus, M. W., and Skaar, D.: Masked tonal hearing thresholds in the beluga whale, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 85, 2651–2654, 1989.
Kardjilov, N., Hilger, A., Manke, I., Woracek, R., and Banhart, J.: CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, J. Applied Crystallogr., 49, 195–202, 2016.
Karlsen, J. D., Bisther, A., Lydersen, C., Haug, T., and Kovacs, K. M.: Summer vocalizations of adult male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Svalbard, Norway, Polar Biol., 25, 808–817, 2002.
Ketten, D. R.: The cetacean ear: Form, frequency and evolution, in: Marine mammal sensory systems, edited by: Thomas, J. A., Kastelein, R. A., and Supin, A. Y., Plenum Press, New York, 53–75, 1992.
Ketten, D. R.: Functional analysis of whale ears: Adaptations for underwater hearing, IEEE Proc. Underwater Acoust., 1, 264–270, 1994.
Ketten, D. R., Arruda, J., Cramer, S., and Yamato, M.: Great ears: Low-frequency sensitivity correlates in land and marine leviathans, in: The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Medicine and Biology, 875, edited by: Popper, A. N. and Hawkins, A., Springer, New York, 529–538, 2016.
Klingenberg, C. P.: MorphoJ: An integrated software package for geometric morphometrics, Molecular Ecol. Resources, 11, 353–357, 2011.
Madsen, P. T., Wahlberg, M., and Møhl, B.: Male sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) acoustics in a high-latitude habitat: implications for echolocation and communication, Behavioral Ecol. Sociobiol., 53, 31–41, 2002.
Manoussaki, D., Dimitriadis, E. K., and Chadwick, R. S.: Cochlea's graded curvature effect on low frequency waves, Phys. Rev. Lett., 96, 1–4, 2006.
Manoussaki, D., Chadwick, R. S., Ketten, D. R., Arruda, J., Dimitriadis, E. K., and O'Malley, J. T.: The influence of cochlear shape on low-frequency hearing, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 105, 6162–6166, 2008.
Marx, F. G. and Fordyce, R. E.: Baleen boom and bust: A synthesis of mysticete phylogeny, diversity and disparity, R. Soc. open sci., 2, 140434, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.140434, 2015.
Marx, F. G., Lambert, O., and Uhen, M. D.: Cetacean Paleobiology, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2016.
Mellinger, D. K. and Clark, C. W.: Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 114, 1108–1119, 2003.
Miller, G. S.: The telescoping of the cetacean skull, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 76, 1–71, 1923.
Mishima,Y., Morisaka, T., Itoh, M., Matsuo, I., Sakaguchi, A., and Miyamoto, Y.: Individuality embedded in the isolation calls of captive beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), Zool. Lett., 1, 27, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40851-015-0028-x, 2015.
Mitteroecker, P. and Gunz, P.: Advances in geometric morphometrics, Evol. Biol., 36, 235–247, 2009.
Møller, H. and Pedersen, C. S.: Hearing at low and infrasonic frequencies, Noise Health, 6, 37–57, 2004.
Mourlam, M. J. and Orliac, M. J.: Infrasonic and ultrasonic hearing evolved after the emergence of modern whales, Current Biol., 27, 1776–1781, 2017.
Nedwell, J. R., Edwards, B., Turnpenny, A. W. H., and Gordon, J.: Fish and marine mammal audiograms: A summary of available information, Subacoustech Rep., 534R0214, Hampshire, 2004.
Nummela, S., Thewissen, J. G. M., Bajpai, S., Hussain, S. T., and Kumar, K.: Sound transmission in archaic and modern whales: anatomical adaptations for underwater hearing, Anat. Rec., 290, 716–733, 2007.
Park, T., Evans, A. R., Gallagher, S. J., and Fitzgerald, E. M. G.: Low-frequency hearing preceded the evolution of giant bodysize and filter feeding in baleen whales, Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 284, 20162528, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.2528, 2017.
Steeman, M. E.: Cladistic analysis and a revised classification of fossil and recent mysticetes, Zool. J. Linnean Soc., 150, 875–894, 2007.
Steeman, M. E.: The extinct baleen whale fauna from the Miocene-Pliocene of Belgium and the diagnostic cetacean ear bones, J. Syst. Palaeont., 8, 63–80, 2010.
Thompson, P. O., Cummings, W. C., and Ha, D. J.: Sounds, source levels, and associated behavior of humpback whales, Southeast Alaska, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 80, 735–740, 1986.
Tubelli, A. A., Zosuls, A., Ketten, D. R., Yamato, M., and Mountain, D. C.: A prediction of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle-ear transfer function, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 132, 3263–3272, 2012.
Turl, C. W.: Low-frequency sound detection by a bottlenose dolphin, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 94, 3006–3008, 1993.
Uhen, M. D.: Form, function, and anatomy of Dorudon atrox (Mammalia, Cetacea): An archaeocete from the middle to late Eocene of Egypt, Univ. Michigan Pap. Paleontol., 34, 1–222, 2004.
Vater, M., Meng, J., and Fox, R. C.: Hearing organ evolution and specialization: Early and later mammals, in: Evolution of the vertebrate auditory system, edited by: Manley, G. A., Popper, A. N., and Fay, R. R., Springer, New York, 256–288, 2004.
Wannaprasert, T. and Jeffery, N.: Variations of mammalian cochlear shape in relation to hearing frequency and skull size, Tropical Nat. Hist., 15, 41–54, 2015.
Wartzok, D. and Ketten, D. R.: Marine mammal sensory systems, in: Biology of marine mammals, edited by: Reynolds III, J. E. and Rommel, S. A., Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C., 117–175, 1999.
West, C. D.: The relationship of the spiral turns of the cochlea and the length of the basilar membrane to the range of audible frequencies in ground dwelling mammals, J. Acousti. Soc. Amer., 77, 1091–1101, 1985.
Yamato, M., Ketten, D. R., Arruda, J., Cramer, S., and Moore, K.: The auditory anatomy of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): A potential fatty sound reception pathway in a baleen whale, Anat. Rec., 295, 991–998, 2012.
Zelditch, M. L., Swiderski, D. L., and Sheets, H. D.: Geometric morphometrics for biologists: A primer, 2nd edition, Elsevier Acad. Press, London, 2012.
The objective was to investigate inner ears and in particular the morphology of the cochlea of fossil and Recent baleen whales to reconstruct the occurrence of low-frequency hearing. Our results of cochlear shape analysis indicate that very low-frequency hearing appeared in the middle Miocene, and infrasonic hearing had evolved by the late Miocene. Cochlear coiling shape is suitable for estimating hearing limits in whales, closely approximated by cochlear length times number of cochlear turns.
The objective was to investigate inner ears and in particular the morphology of the cochlea of...